Respond to the classmates discussion post. 4 sentences each response
Write a response to each classmate . 4 sentences each response
Escaping Self-Destruction In the case of HIV, the immune system signs and executes its own death warrant. Explain the meaning of this statement. The adaptive immune response, otherwise known as specific immunity, is the third and final line of defense for our immune system, only being used after the first two lines of defense fail. In contrast to the innate immune response, the adaptive response takes longer to arrange — usually days or weeks. The adaptive response is also divided into the cellular and humoral responses, with the cellular response being T-cell mediated, and the humoral response being B-cell mediated. Both responses are reliant upon the other in order to be fully functional. While B-cells are only used in the humoral response, T-cells are actually used in both responses and are made up of two types: T helper and T cytotoxic. T cytotoxic cells directly destroy the infected cells, while T helper cells coordinate a response to the infected cells by activating other white blood cells. Out of the two, T helper cells are the most abundant, and are also known as CD4+ cells. HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is a virus that attacks the immune system directly. It was first discovered in the US in the 1970s, however it was known to exist in Africa potentially as early as the 1800s. The virus was first discovered in monkeys as simian immunodeficiency virus, and was believed to have been transmitted into humans through the eating of infected meat. The virus is transmitted to humans when certain body fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal/ rectal fluids, and breast milk come into contact with mucous membranes or damaged tissues, or are directly inserted into the bloodstream. The early symptoms of HIV include flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, sore throat, and muscle aches/ pains. There are three stages of HIV, with the early symptoms falling into stage 1 or the acute infection. Stage 2 or clinical latency is the next stage, where, after the initial symptoms go away, some people may appear asymptomatic. For some this stage may last a few years, while for others it may last a decade or more. When HIV attacks the immune system, it specifically attacks the T helper or CD4+ cells. Since there is no cure for the virus, it can only be managed, and part of managing the virus includes monitoring the patient’s CD4+ count. The normal number of CD4+ cells for a patient to have is between 500-1500 cells; once the CD4+ count shows numbers below 200, the patient is then diagnosed with AIDS or acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome. AIDS is the third and final stage of HIV, as well as the most severe, because of the chance for opportunistic illnesses. Without treatment, most AIDS patients only survive for three years or less. In the case of HIV, the immune system signs and executes its own death warrant through the destruction of its CD4+ cells. Even though science has yet to completely understand the way in which HIV destroys CD4+ cells, we do know that it results in the death of both infected and uninfected cells. Some CD4+ cells are taken over by HIV and used to replicate the virus, while other (uninfected) cells are reprogrammed for apoptosis. The continued loss of CD4+ cells leaves the body open and defenseless for not only the continued replication of HIV, but also for any opportunistic pathogens to take hold, which is essentially a death warrant for the immune system. Belicia D. Cdc.gov. (2018). About HIV/AIDS | HIV Basics | HIV/AIDS | CDC. [online] Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html [Accessed 17 Nov. 2018]. Cummins, N. and Badley, A. (2014). Making sense of how HIV kills infected CD4 T cells: implications for HIV cure. Molecular and Cellular Therapies, 2(1), p.20. Hiv.va.gov. (n.d.). CD4 count (or T-cell test) – HIV/AIDS. [online] Available at: https://www.hiv.va.gov/patient/diagnosis/labs-CD4-count.asp [Accessed 17 Nov. 2018]. Norman-McKay, L. (2019). Microbiology: Basic and clinical principles. New York, NY: Pearson. Uofmhealth.org. (2018). HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Infection | Michigan Medicine. [online] Available at: https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hw151408 [Accessed 17 Nov. 2018].
Classmate #2 Todd
Why is applying ice a recommended therapy for acute inflammation? I picked this question because I always wanted to know, why doctors or hospitals say put ice on your ankle to keep the swelling down or put ice or any part of your body that has inflammation. First of let me start by explain what acute inflammation is. Acute Inflammation is the body’s normal protective response to an injury, irritation or surgery. This natural defense process brings increased blood flow to the area, resulting in an accumulation of fluid. As the body mounts this protective response, the symptoms of inflammation develop. These include: Swelling, pain and increased warmth and redness of the skin. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. When it is acute, it occurs as an immediate response to trauma (an injury or surgery), usually within two hours. When it is chronic, the inflammation reflects an ongoing response to a longer-term medical condition, such as arthritis. Although inflammation can be caused by an infection, they are not the same and are treated differently. To reduce inflammation and the resulting swelling and pain, injured tissue needs to be properly treated. The earlier you start treatment, the better. Initial treatment for acute inflammation in the foot or ankle consists of RICE therapy: Rest: Stay off the foot or ankle. Walking may cause further injury. Ice: Apply an ice pack to the injured area, placing a thin towel between the ice and the skin. Use ice for 20 minutes and then wait at least 40 minutes before icing again. Compression: An elastic wrap should be used to control swelling. Elevation: The foot or ankle should be raised slightly above the level of your heart to reduce swelling. Cold therapy is also referred to as, (cryotherapy). Applying cold may help numb tissues and relieve muscle spasms, pain due to injuries, and low back pain or inflammation that has recently developed. Cold may be applied using an ice bag, a cold pack, or fluids (such as ethyl chloride) that cool by evaporation. The therapist limits the time and amount of cold exposure to avoid damaging tissues and reducing body temperature (causing hypothermia Cold is not applied to tissues with a reduced blood supply (for example, when the arteries are narrowed by peripheral arterial disease. Cold therapy can temporarily reduce nerve activity, which can also relieve pain. There are several different ways to apply cold therapy to an affected area. Treatment options include: ice packs or frozen gel packs, coolant sprays ice massage, ice baths. Other types of cold therapy that are sometimes used include: cryostretching, which uses cold to reduce muscle spasms during stretching, cryokinetics, which combines cold treatment and active exercise and can useful for ligament sprains and whole-body cold therapy chambers. If you’re not careful, cold therapy applied for too long or too directly can result in skin, tissue, or nerve damage. Treatment of Pain and Inflammation – Fundamentals. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/fundamentals/rehabilitation/treatment-of-pain-and-inflammation#v713816 Acute Inflammation. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.foothealthfacts.org/conditions/acute-inflammation https://www.healthline.com/health/chronic-pain/treating-pain-with-heat-and-cold#risks
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Respond to the classmates discussion post. 4 sentences each response was first posted on July 10, 2019 at 8:17 am.
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