State two issues that may be of concern among vulnerable populations and possible solutions to combat such issues.

Instructions: This Competency Assessment will allow you to apply concepts of population-based practice and community as partners.

For this course Competency Assessment, you will need to conduct a community assessment using assessment and evaluation tools, identify principles of community-based participatory research, and describe data sources using mixed methods for evaluation in a particular community context.

Many of you have traveled and participated in international/global immersion experiences, or a local practice where you may be an outsider (not a member of the community for whom you are caring). Others of you may aspire to practice in international settings. Also, in this unit, you have been introduced to the idea of genetics/genomic risks.

For this assignment, submit your assignment in which you do the following:

1. State two issues that may be of concern among vulnerable populations and possible solutions to combat such issues.

Please Note!

My 2 Vulnerable Populations are:

a. Children of low-income families

b. The Mentally disabled

Emphasis should be focused on the following topics:

· Increase school dropout.

· Use of Drugs.

· Low quality of health/Poor health outcomes/Inadequate healthcare/ poor healthcare

· Increase risk of chronic health conditions such as diabetes.

· Increase mental health needs

2. Succinctly describe the relationship between health literacy and population health outcomes.

3. What has been your experiences understanding 1) and 2).

4. As you process some of the ethical issues and concerns about ethical engagement highlighted in the readings and media offerings for this unit

Please identify how you will ensure your engagement is helpful rather than well intended but ineffective (or worse).

· Submit your reflection by the last day of this unit.

(min. 5 pages- not including cover page or references)

Studies of parenting find that low family income and maternal hardship hamper children’s cognitive and social competence. 14 Moreover, parents in poor living environments have difficulty nurturing and protecting their children, increasing the likelihood that children will gravitate into activities and peer associations leading to school dropout, premature sexual experience, use of drugs, and other deviant behavior. 15 Family deprivations also increase the probability of abuse and neglect of children, who then seek to escape the household early, associate with inappropriate peers, form tenuous sexual partnerships, have early pregnancies, and often replicate the pattern of inadequate parenting they experienced as children. 16


Payments to health plans and providers should promote quality health care and improved health and functional status for all patients, including vulnerable populations. Adjusting payments for differences in health or functional status is especially important for Medicare, Medicaid, and other payers that have significant enrollment of individuals with chronic illness or disability so that health plans and providers have an incentive for developing innovative models of care that best serve these individuals

Additional investment should be provided for developing, evaluating, and supporting effective health care delivery models designed to meet the specific needs of vulnerable populations. The lack of evidence of effective approaches to enhance the health and functional status of persons with chronic illness or disabilities suggests the need for significant additional investment in research and innovation for health care and rehabilitation programs serving these patients. In addition, telemedicine and similar innovations, incentives for health care professionals to practice in underserved areas, and enhanced availability of prehospital emergency services should be assessed as approaches for improving the access to care of those facing geographic barriers to appropriate care.

Please kindly use the preferred Resources Below

Preferred Resources


· Beagan, B. L. (2015). Approaches to culture and diversity: A critical synthesis of occupational therapy literature. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 82(5), 272–282. doi:10.1177/0008417414567530

· The ACE Score. (n.d.). Retrieved October 30, 2018, from

· Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Retrieved from

· Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., & Walker, J. D. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood: A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256(3), 174–186. doi:10.1007/s00406-005-0624-4

· California Newsreel. (n.d.). Race: The power of an illusion. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from

· Population Health Forum. (n.d.). Retrieved October 30, 2018, from

Another great resources which will assist is this link…. This is the heart of competency 2:

reflect on your experiences – along with writing about them in your journal entries…


· Children’s Resilience Network. (n.d.). Resilience trumps ACEs. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from

· World Health Organization. (2003). Social determinants of health: The solid facts (2nd ed.). R. Wilkinson, & M. Marmot (Eds.). Copenhagen, DK: World Health Organization. Copenhagen, DK: Author. Retrieved from

· Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (2013a). BOX S-1: Recommendations related to research. In U.S. health in international perspective: Shorter lives, poorer health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from

· Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (2013b). Summary. In U.S. health in international perspective: Shorter lives, poorer health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from

· DeMilto, L., & Nakashian, M. (2016). Using social determinants of health data to improve health care and health: A learning report. M. McKaughan (Ed.). Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Retrieved from

· Brainstorm Media [YouTube Movies]. (2016, July 28). Paper tigers [Video file]. Retrieved from

· Flemmer, N., Dekker, L., & Doutrich, D. (2014). Empathetic partnership: An interdisciplinary framework for primary care practice. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 10(8), 545–551.

· Commission on Social Determinants of Health. (2007). Achieving health equity: From root causes to fair outcomes. Retrieved from

· Issel, L. M., & Wells, R. (2017). Health program planning and evaluation: A practical, systematic approach for community health (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

o Chapter 3, “Community Health Assessment for Program Planning” (pp. 59–90)

o Chapter 4, “Characterizing and Defining the Health Problem” (pp. 91–120)

· Kaplan, R. M., Spittel, M. L., & David, D. H. (Eds.). (2015). Population health: Behavioral and social science insights (AHRQ Publication No. 15-0002). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from

o Introduction, “Innovations in Population Health Research: The Challenge” (pp. 1–14)

o Section 1, “Demographic and Social Epidemiological Perspectives on Population Health” (pp. 15–104)

o Section 2, “Influence of Policies Focused on Behavioral Risk Factors” (pp. 105–218)

Note: Unless otherwise specified, you will access these readings from the University of St. Augustine Library databases.


Israel, B. A., Coombe, C. M., Cheezum, R. R., Schulz, A. J., McGranaghan, R. J., Lichtenstein, R., . . . Burris, A. (2010). Community-based participatory research: A capacity-building approach for policy advocacy a



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