Wage And Salary graduate paper help – EssayPaper.org

Wage And Salary graduate paper help

Compensation Management is the most important concept from the organisation’s point of view. Today, it is the biggest problem for every organistion to retain and attract the employees. So, to remove these problems an organisation should have a deep knowledge about Pay-packet composition. Pay packet is a comprehensive term consists of several elements. Its compositions are – Basic wage, Dearness allowance, House rent allowance, City compensatory allowances, annual statutory bonus, Incentive, Bonus (Fixed Variable and variable), various other perks, Benefits, Medical, Conveyance Etc.

The pay-packet remains the important element of human resource management to retain and motivate employees. It is must for every organisation that they should evaluate their Pay packets due to lot of factors like: trade unions, competitions, legal framework, market situation and public policy etc. Therefore, organisations are finding the need to develop various incentive schemes and payment by results systems to make pay directly related with performance.Wage And Salary graduate paper help




Wage and salary administration affect levels of employee commitment to the organisation. However, fascinating the individual’s job assignment is, the employee must be paid. Pay affects the way people work-how much and how well. A large part of the compensation that people receive from work is monetary. Although managers are expected to conserve money and distribute it wisely, many employees feel that they should get more of it for what they do. Wages, salaries and many employee benefits and services are form of compensation.

Salary and Wage Administration Functions and Responsibilities
The Salaries and Wages section of the Employees: Personnel Administration business area is intended to ensure consistent application of Research Foundation (RF) policies and procedures for salary and wage administration. Compliance with these policies and practices is subject to audit review.

These provisions are not conditions of employment and can be modified, revoked, or changed at any time without notice. No part of this section is intended to be an employment contract between the Research Foundation and its employees nor is to be misconstrued as such a contract.

The Research Foundation’s salary and wage policies and procedures are designed to

provide guidelines for project directors and managers when determining employee salaries.
reinforce the separation of Research Foundation from SUNY employment.
reward performance.
attract, retain, and motivate competent personnel.
External Constraints
As a private, nonprofit organization, the Research Foundation is subject to state and federal regulations, including:

Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)

The Research Foundation must comply with the equal pay, minimum wage, and overtime pay standards of the Fair Labor Standards
Act (FLSA) as amended. The FLSA includes provisions on minimum wage and/or overtime pay requirements and establishes rules
for determining employee exclusion from these requirements.Wage And Salary graduate paper help
NYS Labor Laws

The Research Foundation must comply with New York State Labor Law Article 19 regarding minimum wage provisions and overtime
provisions, and Article 6, which requires prompt payment of wages and accrued benefits to employees who have terminated employment.
IRS regulations

The Research Foundation must comply with IRS requirements regarding reporting and taxation of all monetary compensation, including
approved reimbursements for moving expenses and for meal expenses incurred during nonovernight travel.
Sponsor regulations

The Research Foundation must comply with sponsor requirements regarding salaries and wages when such requirements are more
restrictive than Research Foundation policy, such as charging of overtime to awards and caps on salaries and wages. Individual sponsor
guidelines must be consulted and adhered to.
Example: NIH Salary Cap
The U.S. Congress has mandated limits on the direct salary of an individual under a grant or contract award issued by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The Research Foundation is responsible for complying with these limits for Research Foundation and Income Fund Reimbursable appointments under an NIH award.

Internal Controls
The Research Foundation has established internal controls to ensure that the salary and wage administration policies and procedures are followed and related legal requirements are met. The key internal controls are

the classification and compensation system
The salaries of Research Foundation employees are controlled by a classification and compensation system that consists of two parts: a classification structure and an annual salary plan. The purpose of the classification and compensation system is to maintain equitable and consistent compensation of employees.

Classification Structure
The classification structure establishes standards for each Research Foundation position and identifies the appropriate pay range.Wage And Salary graduate paper help

The structure consists of

titles for each Research Foundation position
standards for each position that define the typical duties and other distinguishing features of the position
pay ranges for each level of positions.
Positions are classified into one of two categories related to FLSA overtime requirements: exempt or nonexempt. An exempt position is one that satisfies the FLSA tests for exemption from eligibility for overtime payment based on salary and position responsibilities. A nonexempt position is one that does not satisfy the FLSA tests.

The structure has separate salary schedules for nonexempt positions, exempt administrative positions, and exempt positions in sponsored programs.

Annual Salary Plan
The Board of Directors annually approves a salary plan that may authorize across-the-board and/or discretionary salary increases subject to the availability of funds and the general responsibilities and approvals associated with these increases.

review and approval of salaries

All Research Foundation salaries require the review and approval of the project director or co-project director, the operations manager
or designee, and one or more additional administrative officials as required by the operating location.

Individual campus procedures should be consulted for requirements for additional approvals. In all cases, approval is demonstrated by
signing the appropriate appointment or change form.
updating and monitoring the computerized business system

The Research Foundation’s computerized business system has been designed to produce a broad spectrum of standard and
customized monitoring reports.
Operating Locations
The Research Foundation operations manager is responsible for ensuring that

the Research Foundation annual salary plan is implemented.
Research Foundation and sponsor salary policies and procedures are adhered to when establishing salaries and wages.

initial salary offers and proposed increases are within available funds and approved schedules.
salaries established above designated limits for positions receive proper approvals.
required notices of compliance with wage laws are posted in a conspicuous place, allowing inspection by employees and government agencies.

The Research Foundation operations manager at each operating location is responsible for all Research Foundation operations at the location, regardless of who performs the operations. The operations manager is accountable to the Research Foundation Board of Directors for the conduct of such operations. Therefore, the operations manager is permitted to delegate the authority to perform operations but may not delegate responsibilities.

For cases when signatory delegation is allowed, there must be a list of authorized signatory delegates kept on file at the operating location.Wage And Salary graduate paper help

Central Office
The Research Foundation Central Office is responsible for

informing operating locations of changes in Research Foundation policies and legal requirements.
maintaining the Research Foundation computer system as necessary to support the salary and wage function.
Additional Responsibility
Locations that Input Data into the Computer System
Locations that input data into the Research Foundation computer system are responsible for inputting and maintaining salary information in the system.

Central Office
The Research Foundation Central Office is responsible for inputting and maintaining salary information in the Research Foundation computer system for locations that elect not to input their own data.

Administration of employee compensation is called wage and salary administration. According to D.S. Beach “Wage and Salary Administration refers to the establishment and implementation of sound policies and practices of employee compensation. It includes such areas as job evaluation, surveys of wage and salaries, analysis of relevant organizational problems, development and maintenance of wage structure, establishing rules for administrating wages, wage payment incentives, profit sharing, wage changes and adjustments, supplementary payments, control of compensation costs and other related items.

What is wage and salary administration? Wage salary administration is essentially the application of a systematic approach to the problem of ensuring that employees are paid in a logical, equitable and fair manner.

Wage: Wage and salary are often discussed in loose sense, as they are used interchangeably. But Tanzanian Labour Organization (ILO) defends the term wage as “the remuneration paid by employer for the services of hourly, daily, weekly and fortnightly employees.”It also means that remuneration paid to production and maintenance or blue collar employees.

Salary: The term salary is defined as the remuneration paid to the clerical and managerial personnel employed on monthly or annual basis.

This distinction between wage and salary does not seem to be valid in these days of human resources approach where all employees are treated as human resources and are viewed at par. Hence, these two terms can be used interchangeably. As such, the wage and/or salary can be defined as the direct remuneration paid to an employee compensating his services to an organization. Salary is also known as basic pay.Wage And Salary graduate paper help

Earnings: Earnings are the total amount of remuneration received by an employee during a given period. These include salary (pay), dearness allowance; house rent allowance, city compensatory allowance, other allowances, overtime payments etc.

Nominal Wage: It is wage paid or received in monetary terms. It is also known as money wage.

Real Wage: Real wage is the amount of wage arrived after discounting normal wage by living cost. It represents the purchasing power of money wage.

Take home salary: It is the amount of the salary left to the employee after making authorized deductions like contribution to the provident fund, life insurance premium, income tax and other changes.

Minimum Wage: It is the amount of remuneration which could meet the “normal need of average employee regarded as a human being living in a civilized society.” It is defined as the amount or remuneration “which may be sufficient to enable a worker to live in reasonable comfort, having regard to all obligations to which an average worker would ordinarily be subjected to.

Importance of Wage and Salary Administration in HR Management

The words wage and salary are sometimes considered synonymous strictly speaking however they have slightly different meaning. Wage refers to at an hourly rate of pay and is the pay basis used most frequently for production and maintenance employees. Salary refers to a weekly, monthly, or yearly rate of pay.

Wage and Salary Administration is important for the following reasons:

Attract and Retain the Employees: If an organization possesses good wage and salary structure, it will attract and retain suitable, qualified, and experienced personnel.

Builds High Morale: The wage rates established for various categories of jobs should be internally consistent; it will motivate the employees of the organization. It will build the high morale of employees and act as an incentive to greater employee productivity and efficiency.

Satisfied Employees: A good wage and salary structure will keep the employees satisfied. There will be lesser labor turnover, industrial disputes and employee grievances and exigencies.Wage And Salary graduate paper help

Labor Cost Equitable: A good wage and salary structure will maintain two types of equitabilities viz., (a) labor cost equitable and, (b) equitable wage and salary structure. Pay according to the work performed by an employee. If an employee is performing hazardous work pay him more.

No Favoritism/Bias: If an organization has a definite wage and salary structure, favoritism bias can be avoided.

Clearly drawn the line of promotion: If a company has a good wage and salary structure, it can have a definite sequence of jobs and clearly drawn the line of promotion.

Image of Progressive Employer: A good and definite wage and salary structure would enable the company to project in the public. All image of a progressive employer.

Harmonious Industrial Relations: A good wage and salary structure will serve as a sound basis for collective bargaining and enable the maintenance of satisfactory union-management and employee-management relations.

Ensure Minimum Wages: A good wage and salary structure should also conform to the minimum wage laws.

The main objective of wage and salary administration is to establish and maintain an equitable wage and salary system. This is so because only a properly developed compensation system enables an employer to attract, obtain, retain and motivate people of required calibre and qualification in his/her organisation. These objectives can be seen in more orderly manner from the point of view of the organisation, its individual employees and collectively. There are outlined and discussed subsequently:

Organisational Objectives:
The compensation system should be duly aligned with the organisational need and should also be flexible enough to modification in response to change.

Accordingly, the objectives of system should be to:

1. Enable an organisation to have the quantity and quality of staff it requires.

2. Retain the employees in the organisation.

3. Motivate employees for good performance for further improvement in performance.

4. Maintain equity and fairness in compensation for similar jobs.

5. Achieve flexibility in the system to accommodate organisational changes as and when these takplace.

6. Make the system cost-effective.

Individual Objectives:
From individual employee’s point of view, the compensation system should have the following objectives:

1. Ensures a fair compensation.

2. Provides compensation according to employee’s worth.

3. Avoids the chances of favouritism from creeping in when wage rates are assigned.

4. Enhances employee morale and motivation.

To-day it become essential for every organisation to give the fair pay packet to the employees for their work either because of competitive pressures, legislation or wage settlements, and the need to attract and retain the right people. That’s why organisations are searching for means to find innovative approaches to make pay packet performance oriented and attractive.Wage And Salary graduate paper help

Concept of wage
Payment made to labour is generally referred to as wages. It can be time-rated or piece-rated. It can be rate per hour, per day, per week, per month or per year. In Price-rated system, it can be by completion of job-task and wages fixed for per unit of performance.

Concept of Salary
Money paid periodically to persons whose output can not easily be measured, such as clerical staff as well as supervisory and managerial staff, is referred to generally as salaries. Concept of Pay-Packet is a comprehensive term and consists of several elements like basic wage, dearness allowance, house rent allowance, city compensatory allowance, annual statutory bonus, incentive bonus and various other perks and benefits etc.

The basic wage provides and stable base to the wage structure. It is the price to be paid to get a given job done. This could be on monthly, weekly or daily basis.

Basic wages is built upon the statutory minimum wage, through the awards of the Industrial Tribunals and directives of the Pay Commission at National and State Levels and the collective bargaining. The minimum wages, according to the recommendations of the 1949 Report of the Fair Wages Committee appointed by the Government of India should provide not merely for bare subsistence of life but for the preservation of efficiency of workers by providing some measure of education, medical requirements and amenities. It was after the end of the Second World War that the Industrial Tribunals and Courts have set the pattern of basic wages in Industries through awards. Basic wage of Industrial worker is based on a “Standard-Budget” concept or a family of four, should include food, clothing, housing and fuel. This is also known as Need Based Minimum Wage. The underlying assumptions behind the basic wage legislation are that the industry does not have the right to exist unless the minimum needs of workers are met.

The Committee on Fair-Wages (1948) and 15th session of I.L.C. (1954) propounded certain wage concepts such as minimum wages, fair wages, living wages, and need based minimum wages.

Minimum wages- not merely for basic subsistence but also for the preservation of efficiency and providing some measure of education; medical etc.

Fair-wage – while the lower level of fair wage is the minimum wage the upper-limit is the capacity of the industry to pay. Between these two limits, the actual wage can depend on (I) the productivity of labour (ii) the prevailing wage rate (iii) National income (iv) the place of industry in national economy.Wage And Salary graduate paper help




Living-wages – It represents and inclined decency, protection against ill health, requirements of essential social heads and insurance against some future misfortune etc.

Living wage is a concept enshrined in our constitution and state will make all efforts to attain it.

The concepts of Nominal/Money wage and Real Wage also require explain in brief.

• Nominal/Money wage is the earning in cash or its equivalent

• Real wage is the money wages discounted by cost of living index to denote the purchasing power of the wages.

Differentials in basic wages are normally based on a set of criterion which the Fair Wages Committee suggested. They are as follow:

• The degree of skill

• The strain of work

• The experience involved

• The training required

• The responsibilities undertaken

• The mental and physical requirements

• The disagreeableness of the task

• The hazard on the work

• The fatigue involved

Basic wage is generally practiced through scales of pay. An employee draws his basic pay in a range provided in the scales. He also gets increments on periodical basis. Basic pay generally remain static, unless an employee moves upward (gets promotion) or downward. (gets demotion).Wage And Salary graduate paper help

The words dearness allowance primarily suggests and refer to allowance paid to employees in order to enable them to face the increasing dearness of essential commodities. The system of D.A. for employees began during Second World War when Government sanctioned a scheme of grain allowance to their lowest paid employees. Gradually, it was extended to all classes of employees as a means to protect, to some extent, the real income of wage-earners and salaried employees from the effect of price-rise and inflation. Instead of increasing wages, DA is paid to neutralise the rise in prices. The assumption behind DA rise is that if the prices go back to the earlier level, the DA can be reduced or withdrawn.

In other countries, where similar practice exists, it is known as a practice of inflation adjustment or cost of living allowance (COLA). Even in India, Sec.-3 of Minimum Wages Act refers to it as cost of Living Allowance.

DA forms a variable component of Pay-Packet, since rate of dearness increases more than once every year, whereas the basic pay scales are revised after longer spells of time.

The scheme of DA is having usually three parameters – (I) Index factor (ii) the time factor (iii) the point factor. The Index is usually the All India Consumer Price Index (AICPI) Number for Industrial Workers (Base 1960 = 100 AICPI). The allowance may go up with the revision in the index based on average for a selected period to off-set the temporary fluctuations in the index. Also, a doze of DA is related to certain prescribed increase in the number of the Index points.

There are different patterns of calculating DA, using the above parameters –

The Central DA – Applicable to Central Government employees and employees of certain central PSUs. In this pattern incident of neutralisation goes upto 100% for lower slabs.

The Industrial Pattern – Applicable to most of the PSUs and also some private sectors. The DA is paid at the rate certain rupees (say Rs.3) for per point increase in the Price Index.

DA system in Banks and LIC is yet another pattern which is different than above types. It has better benefits than IDA pattern.

Wage is “a fair day’s remuneration for a fair day’s work”, i.e. standard performance. An incentive wage is described as “a method of payment for work of an acceptable quality produced over and above a specified quantity or standard”. Payment-by- Result (PBR) refers to a method which provides, for the “direct linking of workers earnings to a measure of their performance”.

Where pay is the contingent upon performance, employees give their best under incentive conditions rather than non-incentive conditions. The incentives can be financial or non-financial and both types of their role under certain conditions.

PBR system (wage-incentive being one) can be distinguished on the basis of unit of accountability for performance and classified into three categories (i) individual performance (ii) group performance (iii) enterprise performance.

Individual Payment-by-result – The purpose is to accomplish higher-level of performance with promise of extra remuneration for extra effort over the standard. Several individual PBR systems are in vague. Some of the well known systems are price-rated system, premium bonus system (standard hour/measured work day plans) or work-improvement system.Wage And Salary graduate paper help

Group payment by result scheme – The PBR schemes discussed above can be applied on group basis also. Group PBR is appropriate where jobs are interdependent; where it is difficult to measure individual performance separately and where group pressures influence the output of the members of the group. There should be objective system of measurement of the group performance and members must be aware of it.

Enterprise-level schemes – These schemes emphasis gain sharing arising through redirection in labour and other costs. The gains arising out of improvements in performance over and above the base or norm is shared between the employees and the organisation according to pre-determined ratio.

Managerial Incentive Plans
Managerial employees get the following types of additional incentives –

• Commission on a percentage of profit

• Company’s share on concessional rates

• Bonuses in cash or kind (discount coupons, paid holidays, etc.)

Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 ensures payment of bonus each year. This ranges from 8.33% to 20% of wages. The Act compels even the loss-making industries to pay 8.33%. For profit-making companies, the Act provides formula to declare annual bonus, which has to have the ceiling of 20%. In this sense, the annual bonus has become a sort of “deferred-wage” every employee gets its.

The method of calculation of annual bonus is given below:

First gross profit is to be calculated in the manner specified in the First and Second Schedule of the Act.

From the gross profit so worked out the available surplus is to be computed by deducting prior changes, such as (a) depreciation admissible under Section 32 (1) of the Income Tax (b) development rebate, or investment allowance, or development allowance deductable by employer from his income under the Income Tax Act (c) direct taxes payable by the employer on income, profits, and gains during accounting year (d) actual dividend payable on the preference share capital, and (e) 8.5 return on paid-up capital and 6% return on reserve shown in the balance sheets at the commencement of the accounting year. In the case of banking company the return on paid-up capital and reserves to be deducted is to be i % less and (go such further sums as are specified in respect of the employer in the Third Schedule of the Act.Wage And Salary graduate paper help

From the “Available Surplus” so computed, 67% of it in case of foreign companies and 60% in case of other companies are to be constituted as “Allocable Surplus” for payment of bonus to the employees covered by the Act.

Every employer whose establishment is covered by the Act, has to pay a minimum bonus equivalent 8.33% of the salary and wages including dearness allowance during the accounting year, or Rs.100 to all eligible workers over 15 years of age, and Rs.60 in case of workers below 15 years of age, whichever is higher, irrespective of the fact whether there is any allocable surplus or not. Minimum amount of bonus is to be paid in proportion to the number of days actually worked.

If in any accounting year the allocable surplus exceeds the amount of minimum bonus payable to the employees, the employer shall pay to every employee in respect of that accounting year bonus which shall be an amount in proportion to the salary or wage earned by the employee during the accounting year subject to a maximum of 20% of such salary or wage. In computing the allocable surplus for this purpose the amount of set on and set off from the previous years will be taken into account.

Although this Act is applicable to all those persons who receive monthly pay upto Rs.3500, but in the case of person with monthly pay between Rs.1600 and Rs.3500 only pay of Rs.1600 is to be taken into account for working out the amount of bonus payable to them, for this purpose the term pay includes basic pay and dearness allowance.

The employee not covered by the Act, also get an amount equivalent to bonus either on Ex-gratia or Reward or by any other name. Therefore, bonus has become an integrated part of pay-packet.

The Pay Packet includes, such extra benefits, in addition to the normal wages or salary compensation or incentive payment etc., are referred to loosely as Allowances and Fringe benefits. They form substantial part of pay-packet and an employee decides his employment keeping the allowances and fringe benefits also in view.

Successive wage settlement/awards have brought of a number of allowances which form integrated part of pay-packet.

The general objective of the organisation for offering fringe benefits to the employee is to attract, retain and motivate him. The specific objectives are related to the nature of each benefit. For example, extra-increments and accelerated promotions on acquiring higher and relevant qualification is intended to enhance qualifications and skill mix of the employees. Similarly nutritious food (milk etc. is given to make good of the efficiency losses and restore stamina to work.

There are many other considerations for instituting and expanding employee’s fringe- benefits. For example paternalistic or humanistic considerations, statutory requirements, concern for security hazard of industrial life, tax considerations, utilisation of leisure time, inculcating some of involvement, competitive market conditions to attract and retain good performers.

Paternalistic or Humanistic consideration – Basically voluntary with welfare orientation to supplement wage compensation with certain infrastructures or facilities to provide for health; education, and housing as also social, cultural, religion, recreational activities, etc.Wage And Salary graduate paper help

Statutory requirements – Since 1940s social welfare provisions have been incorporated in different legislations – canteens, rest-sheds, cretches, maternity and paternity provisions etc.

Concern for security – The need for catering to the social security needs of the employees, specially after retirement, come under this – Provident Fund, Gratuity and Pension Schemes are the main Housing-Scheme, Medicare after retirement and many other security schemes are coming in this area.

Hazard of Industrial Life – To avoid depletion of saving in illness, accident etc. certain provisions have been made – workmen compensation Act and the ESI Act etc. are the examples. Large organisations have gone for normal health care service of their employees and their family. Some have made good hospitals; some have gone for dispensaries and some for Medicare schemes.

Tax Considerations – Organisations develop tax planning to avoid tax obligations by restructuring the pay packet – A significant portion of the remuneration is split into variety of expenses like house-rent, medical, transport entertainment, education, interest-free loans, loans at concessional rate, etc. The purpose is to enable the employee to have maximum value for a given remuneration package. The tax-free extra list is ever expanding more prominently in Private Sectors and MNCs for their managerial staff. But tax authorities are taking exception of going beyond certain limit.

Utilisation of leisure time – Besides shortening of working hours and the phenomenon of extended week-ends the importance of leave and holidays for rest and recreation to maintain agile body and creative mind is on increase. In view of this, organisation are not only providing for paid leaves of different kinds (casual, privilege, sick, special casual leave, etc.) but also granting facilities for leave travel (usually in form of reimbursement of travel expenses for holiday travel in a year to two). To make it convenient and cheap, organisations have gone for constructing holidays homes at resorts or hire hotel or guest houses etc, for their employees and their families. Some of the private sectors and MNCs organise foreign trips for holiday along with family.

Inculcating sense of involvement – organisations have gone for novel fringe benefits to elicit employees sense of involvement. Most of them have been modeled on pattern with Japanese organisations – company’s uniform (clothes, shoes, tie, watches, etc.), concessional lunch for every one in company’s canteen; subsidised picnics etc. are the examples.

Competitive considerations – competitive pirating is common phenomenon. Organisations face problem of attracting and retaining. Also, organisations located in backward areas may face additional problems. Hence, a variety of incentives and benefits are offered- township, reimbursement of educational expense of children, self-lease houses, special allowances or pay (disturbed area allowance, construction allowance, difficulty allowance, etc.) are given. In addition, membership of clubs, professional associations, sponsorship for training and conferences abroad, buy back of company’s houses, car, furniture at discounted rate etc. are also given.

In this competitive-age, where job-hopping, is very frequent, the organisations are realising the need to be sensitive to mould the pay and fringe-benefits to suit the needs of the individual employees rather than offer a common, standard pay package with the result, flexible compensation packages (known as Ala Carta or In-Basket) are gaining widespread acceptance among managerial employees. Such practices are very much prevalent in MNCs and some big private sectors. But such flexible pay- package is still to be common practice in India.Wage And Salary graduate paper help

In flexible compensation package, the total pay-packet is decided or negotiated and employee is given option to distribute it under different items like pay, house-rent, conveyance, entertainment, journal/book allowance, membership in club/professional India, furnishing allowances, drivers’ salary etc. Most of the items constitute expenses that do not form the part of taxable income: there are some items which a particular employee may need and a particular employee may not need. He has a range of choice and he plans his choosing keeping his needs and tax-element in view. Flexible compensation often extends and goes beyond fringe benefits in traditional sense. Wage And Salary graduate paper help

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