Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
The World Dental Federation (FDI) policy-makers adopted a new definition of oral health in 2016. In addition to addressing well-being and the absence of disease or infirmity, they defined oral health as being multifaceted, fundamental to health and quality of life, and subject to an individual’s circumstances . The FDI policy-makers described oral health as involving speaking, smiling, tasting, touching, chewing, swallowing, and emoting . The burden of poor oral health and its consequences have resulted in a call for oral health to be included in all health policies ; a call derived from the voices of the people for overall better care, better health, and lower cost . There are many known factors (social, psychosocial, economic, and cultural) that interact holistically with biological factors and have pivotal roles in overall health outcomes subject to an individual’s circumstances . Likewise, social, psychosocial, economic, and cultural factors also impact self-perception of health. However, in terms of clinical diagnoses and/or assessments, self-perception questions and clinical examinations may not have adequate agreement . In a clinical setting, the discordance between patient’s self-report of symptoms or lack thereof and a healthcare provider’s clinically derived diagnosis/assessment is often resolved. However, on a population level, using data to learn about ways to improve quality requires measures (1) that are of importance, (2) that are efficient and do not involve a lot of time, (3) that measure what is intended, and (4) that are helpful in informing policy . As such, to address a population’s oral health needs for policy determination, it is important to know the agreement between questions involving oral health self-perceptions/self-report of needs versus clinically evaluated oral healthcare need so that the fewest and the best questions can be used in population research.Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
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Global efforts to improve the health of women largely focus on improving sexual and reproductive health. However, the global burden of disease has changed significantly over the past decades. Currently, the greatest burden of death and disability among women is attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), most notably cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases, diabetes, dementia, depression and musculoskeletal disorders. Hence, to improve the health of women most efficiently, adequate resources need to be allocated to the prevention, management and treatment of NCDs in women. Such an approach could reduce the burden of NCDs among women and also has the potential to improve women’s sexual and reproductive health, which commonly shares similar behavioural, biological, social and cultural risk factors. Historically, most medical research was conducted in men and the findings from such studies were assumed to be equally applicable to women. Sex differences and gender disparities in health and disease have therefore long been unknown and/or ignored. Since the number of women in studies is increasing, evidence for clinically meaningful differences between men and women across all areas of health and disease has emerged. Systematic evaluation of such differences between men and women could improve the understanding of diseases, as well as inform health practitioners and policymakers in optimising preventive strategies to reduce the global burden of disease more efficiently in women and men.
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When it comes to healthcare, some problems are universal; however, there are other issues that affect women only or that affect women at much higher rates than they do men. According to the American Heart Association, heart disease is the leading killer of women and causes the death of one in three women each year. Other issues that exclusively or predominately affect women include breast and ovarian cancer, ovarian cysts, anorexia, bulimia and depression.Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
Understanding Female Health Problems
The first step to understanding female health problems is education. Many women simply aren’t aware of the risk factors that lead to serious health problems, and they miss out on opportunities they could be taking to minimize their risk. While some risk factors are genetic, others are based on lifestyle.
How to Diagnose a Health Problem in a Daughter, Wife or Girlfriend
If you are concerned about health problems in your daughter, wife or girlfriend, there are steps you can take to help minimize their risk of developing a health problem. First, encourage them to be proactive about their health. Many women ignore symptoms and suffer in silence under the misconception that what they’re going through is normal. This can lead to problems going undiagnosed for years. Diagnostics should be left to healthcare professionals, so encourage your loved one to speak with her doctor about any health problems she’s experiencing.
How to Recognize a Women’s Disorder
Women’s disorders have many of the same initial symptoms as general disorders. Any significant changes in weight, behavior, mood or appearance should be taken seriously and discussed with a doctor. Online diagnostic tools are often vague, which is why talking to an actual doctor is essential.
If you are concerned about a woman you love and would like to learn how to recognize a women’s disorder, call our toll-free hotline at today. We have plenty of trained specialists who would be more than happy to help you or your loved one find the right healthcare provider.
Steps You Can Take to Help Someone With Women’s Health Problems
The first and most important step you should take is to encourage your loved one to get more information. Knowledge is a powerful tool when it comes to personal health, and the more you know about risk factors and how to manage them, the better off you are. Once a diagnosis is made, you can provide support by helping a woman follow through on any prescribed treatment plan or medical advice.
Talking to Someone With Female Problems
It can be difficult to know what to say when a woman you love has just been diagnosed with a serious medical problem. She may be in a state of shock, denial or even embarrassment. The most important thing you can do is ask her if you can assist her with her journey to better health. Encouragement is the key to wellness, and a person who feels like they have the support of loved ones is much more likely to remain optimistic and stick with their treatment plan.
Adolescents and Teens
Many teenagers have a sense that they are too young to worry about their health, and they may even engage in risky behavior that can damage their health. Studies estimate that teenage girls are 30 percent more likely than teenage boys to have unprotected sex during their first sexual encounter. Such actions can lead to the transmission of human papilloma virus (HPV), other sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy.Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
Learning to Cope With Female Health Issues
While some women’s health issues are temporary and can be effectively cured, others are long-term or permanent conditions that must instead be managed by a variety of treatment options. If your loved one is suffering from a permanent health condition, she may feel alienated. Coping is a process that takes time, and the strategy that works best will vary from person to person. Some people choose to seek counseling when they need help learning to cope with female health issues.
If you or a loved one would like more information on finding a counselor or treatment center to better cope with women’s health issues, call our hotline at . Our friendly representatives are ready to take your call and provide you with the support and information you need.
How to Treat Women’s Health Problems
Treatment for women’s health issues varies according to the individual woman and her condition. Some conditions can be treated by simple lifestyle changes, while others require a combination of dietary changes, exercise, medication and sometimes surgical procedures. Women should be encouraged to be as proactive in their treatment process as possible.
Because women have different body chemistry than males, many of their risk factors and treatment responses are significantly different. Doctors may prescribe different medication to female patients than they would males due to a variety of factors, including possible liver damage, the likelihood of depression and possible hormonal side effects. Women who are pregnant or nursing are recommended to abstain from many commonly prescribed medications due to the risks of birth defects and other serious health problems that can be passed on from mother to infant. It is important that your physician knows as much about your health and lifestyle as possible, so they can determine which treatments would be the most effective and safest for you.
Deciding Between Possible Solutions
When it comes to deciding between possible solutions for women’s health problems, it is important to do research in conjunction with your healthcare provider. While doctors have their patients’ best interests in mind, the patient has the final decision when it comes to choosing which solution is best.
From treatment facilities to medications, there are a massive variety of healthcare solutions available. Fortunately, there have been many strides in modern medicine when it comes to treating women’s health conditions. There is plenty of information available to the public on various topics in women’s health, and your family doctor’s office is often the best place to start gathering information. There, you can find abridged versions of the information and updates doctors receive in pamphlet form. Your doctor can also advise you on everything from which supplements to take to the best way to make effective lifestyle changes.
Where to Find Female Health Treatment for a Friend or Family Member
If a loved one is dealing with a women’s health issue, help is available. Information is a powerful resource, and the more you learn about the condition affecting you or your loved one, the better chance you have of getting effective treatment. You may not be able to change the condition, but it is possible to learn coping strategies and find treatment options that will help manage your loved one’s symptoms.Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
If you would like more information on a women’s health issue that is affecting you or your loved one, call our toll-free hotline at . Our friendly representatives are waiting to take your call and connect you to the information and resources you need to take control of your journey to better health and wellness.
Here are ten of the main issues regarding women’s health that keep me awake at night:
Cancer: Two of the most common cancers affecting women are breast and cervical cancers. Detecting both these cancers early is key to keeping women alive and healthy. The latest global figures show that around half a million women die from cervical cancer and half a million from breast cancer each year. The vast majority of these deaths occur in low and middle income countries where screening, prevention and treatment are almost non-existent, and where vaccination against human papilloma virus needs to take hold.
In 2015, in too many countries, “women’s empowerment” remains a pipedream – little more than a rhetorical flourish added to a politician’s speech…
Dr Flavia Bustreo, ADG
Reproductive health: Sexual and reproductive health problems are responsible for one third of health issues for women between the ages of 15 and 44 years. Unsafe sex is a major risk factor – particularly among women and girls in developing countries. This is why it is so important to get services to the 222 million women who aren’t getting the contraception services they need.
Maternal health: Many women are now benefitting from massive improvements in care during pregnancy and childbirth introduced in the last century. But those benefits do not extend everywhere and in 2013, almost 300 000 women died from complications in pregnancy and childbirth. Most of these deaths could have been prevented, had access to family planning and to some quite basic services been in place.
HIV: Three decades into the AIDS epidemic, it is young women who bear the brunt of new HIV infections. Too many young women still struggle to protect themselves against sexual transmission of HIV and to get the treatment they require. This also leaves them particularly vulnerable to tuberculosis – one of the leading causes of death in low-income countries of women 20–59 years.
Sexually transmitted infections: I’ve already mentioned the importance of protecting against HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (the world’s most common STI). But it is also vital to do a better job of preventing and treating diseases like gonorrhoea, chlamydia and syphilis. Untreated syphilis is responsible for more than 200,000 stillbirths and early foetal deaths every year, and for the deaths of over 90 000 newborns.
Violence against women: Women can be subject to a range of different forms of violence, but physical and sexual violence – either by a partner or someone else – is particularly invidious. Today, one in three women under 50 has experienced physical and/or sexual violence by a partner, or non-partner sexual violence – violence which affects their physical and mental health in the short and long-term. It’s important for health workers to be alert to violence so they can help prevent it, as well as provide support to people who experience it.
Mental health: Evidence suggests that women are more prone than men to experience anxiety, depression, and somatic complaints – physical symptoms that cannot be explained medically. Depression is the most common mental health problem for women and suicide a leading cause of death for women under 60. Helping sensitise women to mental health issues, and giving them the confidence to seek assistance, is vital.Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
Noncommunicable diseases: In 2012, some 4.7 million women died from noncommunicable diseases before they reached the age of 70 —most of them in low- and middle-income countries. They died as a result of road traffic accidents, harmful use of tobacco, abuse of alcohol, drugs and substances, and obesity — more than 50% of women are overweight in Europe and the Americas. Helping girls and women adopt healthy lifestyles early on is key to a long and healthy life.
Being young: Adolescent girls face a number of sexual and reproductive health challenges: STIs, HIV, and pregnancy. About 13 million adolescent girls (under 20) give birth every year. Complications from those pregnancies and childbirth are a leading cause of death for those young mothers. Many suffer the consequences of unsafe abortion.
Getting older: Having often worked in the home, older women may have fewer pensions and benefits, less access to health care and social services than their male counterparts. Combine the greater risk of poverty with other conditions of old age, like dementia, and older women also have a higher risk of abuse and generally, poor health.
When I lie awake thinking of women and their health globally, I remind myself: the world has made a lot of progress in recent years. We know more, and we are getting better at applying our knowledge. At providing young girls a good start in life.
And there has been an upsurge in high-level political will – evidenced most recently in the United Nations Secretary-General’s Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. Use of services, especially those for sexual and reproductive health, has increased in some countries. Two important factors that influence women’s health – namely, school enrolment rates for girls and greater political participation of women – have risen in many parts of the world.
But we are not there yet. In 2015, in too many countries, “women’s empowerment” remains a pipedream – little more than a rhetorical flourish added to a politician’s speech. Too many women are still missing out on the opportunity to get educated, support themselves, and obtain the health services they need, when they need them.
That’s why WHO is working so hard to strengthen health systems and ensure that countries have robust financing systems and sufficient numbers of well-trained, motivated health workers. That’s why WHO, with UN and world partners, are coming together at the UN Commission on Status of Women from 9-20 March 2015 in New York. We will look again at pledges made in the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform of Action with a view to renewing the global effort to remove the inequalities that put decent health services beyond so many women’s reach.
And that is why WHO and its partners are developing a new global strategy for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health, and working to enshrine the health of women in the post 2015 United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. This means not only setting targets and indicators, but catalysing commitments in terms of policy, financing and action, to ensure that the future will bring health to all women and girls – whoever they are, wherever they live.
While both men and women contract various conditions, some health issues affect women differently and more commonly.  Furthermore, many women’s health conditions go undiagnosed and most drug trials do not include female test subjects. Even so, women bear exclusive health concerns, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, menopause, and pregnancy. Women suffer higher heart attack deaths compared to men. Depression and anxiety exhibit more frequently among female patients. Urinary tract conditions present more often in females, and sexually transmitted diseases can cause more harm to women. Among the conditions that present most frequently in women, the following eight illnesses pose considerable health risks.
In the United States, heart disease causes one in every four deaths among women.  Although the public considers heart disease a common issue among men, the condition affects males and females nearly equally. Yet, only 54 percent of women realize that heart disease is the top health condition threatening their gender. In the United States, 49 percent of all consumers suffer from high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke; factors that contribute to heart disease.Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
Breast cancer, which typically originates in the lining of the milk ducts, can spread to other organs, and is the most aggressive cancer affecting the global female population.  The condition presents more among female populations in developed nations due to their extended life spans.
Initially, women afflicted with breast cancer may develop breast lumps. Most breast lumps are nonthreatening, but it is important for women to have each one checked by a care provider.
Ovarian and Cervical Cancer
Many people are not aware of the differences between ovarian and cervical cancer.  Cervical cancer originates in the lower uterus, while ovarian cancer starts in the fallopian tubes. While both conditions cause similar pain, cervical cancer also causes discharge and pain during intercourse.
While ovarian cancer presents extremely vague symptoms, the condition is very complex. Finally, Pap smears detect cervical but not ovarian cancer.
Bleeding and discharge are a normal part of the menstrual cycle.  However, added symptoms during menstruation may indicate health issues, and unusual symptoms, such as bleeding between menstruations and frequent urinating, can mimic other health conditions.
Vaginal issues could also indicate serious problems such as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or reproductive tract cancer. While care providers might treat mild infections easily, if left unchecked, they can lead to conditions such as infertility or kidney failure.
Pre-existing conditions can worsen during pregnancy, threatening the health of a mother and her child.  Asthma, diabetes, and depression can harm the mother and child during pregnancy if not managed properly.
Pregnancy can cause a healthy mother’s red blood cell count to drop, a condition called anemia, or induce depression. Another problem arises when a reproductive cell implants outside the uterus, making further gestation unfeasible. Fortunately, obstetricians can manage and treat common and rare health issues that emerge during pregnancies.
Autoimmune disease occurs when body cells that eliminate threats, such as viruses, attack healthy cells.  As this condition continues to escalate among the population, researchers remain baffled as to why the condition affects mostly women. While many distinct autoimmune diseases exist, most share symptoms such as:
● Mild fever
● Skin irritation
Most of the autoimmune system rests in the stomach. Duly, many who suffer from this condition have resorted to natural healing practices, such as:Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
● Consuming less sugar
● Consuming less fat
● Lowering stress
● Reducing toxin intake
However, the best defense against autoimmune disease is early detection.
Osteoporosis weakens bones, allowing them to break easily.  Several factors can cause the condition that occurs mostly in women, such as:
● Alcohol consumption
● Certain prescriptions
● Lack of exercise
● Low body mass
● Steroid use
To detect the condition, care providers measure bone density using an X-ray or ultrasound diagnostic. While no cure exists for osteoporosis, care providers can prescribe treatment to impede illness progression, which might include dietary supplements, healthy lifestyle choices, or prescription medication.
Depression and Anxiety
Natural hormonal fluctuations can lead to depression or anxiety.  Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) occurs commonly among women, while premenstrual dysmorphic disorder (PMDD) presents similar, but greatly intensified, symptoms. Shortly after birth, many mothers acquire a form of depression called the “baby blues,” but perinatal depression causes similar – but much stronger – concerns, emotional shifts, sadness, and tiredness. Perimenopause, the shift into menopause, can also cause depression. No matter how intense the symptoms, care providers can provide relief with prescription or therapeutic treatments.
Health Technology for Women
Soon, new technologies will emerge to assist care providers in treating women’s health conditions.  Researchers have developed innovative medical treatments, such as a patient operated device that prepares women for breast reconstruction using carbon dioxide instead of needles and a blood test that can detect whether gestation has started outside of the fallopian tubes. Other developing medical technologies include an at home, do-it-yourself Pap smear and a test that determines pregnancy using saliva as a sample.Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
Women can lower the risk for cancers and other common illnesses with healthy habits and regular care provider visits.  However, in many underserved communities nurse practitioners (NPs) and nurse midwives fill the shortage created by lack of care providers, while covering service areas encompassing far too many clients. As America’s health care needs increase, care provider organizations will need many more NPs to ensure positive health outcomes for women in these communities.
A number of researchers have examined oral health self-reports and oral health outcomes. For example, researchers found agreement between the self-reported number of missing teeth and the clinically determined number of missing teeth in adults, ages 70 years and above .
However, researchers also determined that self-reports of periodontal disease had good specificity but low sensitivity with clinical determinations among Veterans . Among healthcare professionals, self-reports of periodontal surgery were associated with clinically determined periodontal disease measured in bone loss . And, in a study in which researchers completed a full mouth clinical assessment for periodontal disease, the self-report of periodontal disease was in agreement with the clinical results . In circumstances where only self-reports are available, valid correspondence with oral health needs is important to advance knowledge and to inform both treatment planning and policy development. Self-reported symptoms and health status matter. For example, since self-reported smokers were more than twice as likely to report poor oral health than nonsmokers and more likely to seek dental care symptomatically , report oral-facial pain , or report having higher dental needs , their dental treatment planning requires the consideration of their self-report.
However, there is a lack of consistency in epidemiological studies using self-reports with reference to oral health, due to the differences in which researchers ask oral health self-report questions, the end-points/outcomes for research that are considered, and the samples that are chosen. In summary, establishing which self-report questions have the best concordance with clinical evaluations has the potential to improve efficiency, improve reliability of epidemiological studies without the expense of clinical assessment, provide useful information for policy development, and ultimately improve oral healthcare without excessive measurement.
The purpose of this study was to determine the concordance of self-reported oral health questions versus the clinical evaluation of oral healthcare need by calibrated dentists to determine useful epidemiological questions. The determination of operant, valid questions about oral health is needed so that patient’s behaviors/symptoms/conditions can be determined efficiently and diplomatically. Our focus is to provide data-driven evidence on the oral health questions that were relatively more concordant with the clinical determinations for the need of immediate or routine dental care. Tension exists for both the provider and patient when required to collect extraneous data which wastes time, is not helpful, and does not improve health outcomes .Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
The present study received West Virginia University Institutional Review Board acknowledgement (protocol number 1606141771). The conceptual framework for this study was the Multidimensional Conceptual Model of Oral Health in which clinical oral health need is identified as oral tissue damage . In the model, tissue damage and oral disease (oral pain and discomfort, oral functional limits, and oral disadvantage) are factors for self-rated oral health.
2.1. Data Source
The data source for the present study was National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2013-14 , which is available to researchers from the NHANES website. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention researchers for the NHANES used stratified, multistage probability sampling designs for the surveys. The NHANES participants were civilians who were noninstitutionalized and who lived in the U.S., including Washington, DC. The researchers for the NHANES oversampled smaller subgroups to increase estimate accuracy.
Data for the full mouth periodontal examination were collected in a mobile examination center by calibrated licensed dentists who used #5 reflecting mirrors, Hu Friedy PCP-2 (Hu Friedy, Chicago, IL) periodontal probes with markings of 2-4mm; 6-mm, and 10-12 mm parallel to the tooth’s long axis for the periodontal examination, and #23 dental explorers for the dental examination . A reference examiner conducted 20-25 examination replications per year to verify calibration. The examiners reported if there was a need for a participant to seek dental care, or if the participant needed to continue routine care. Participants for the periodontal examination in the NHANES, 2013-14 were ages 30 years and above. Participants for the dental examination in the NHANES, 2013-2014 were ages 1 year and above.Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
The participants in the NHANES, 2013-2014, also responded to interview questions involving the status of their teeth and gingiva, demographic information, and questions regarding health and nutrition. Details of the NHANES study are available at the NHANES website, https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/Default.aspx .
Eligibility for this study’s data set included complete data for the dentists’ oral health recommendations and responses from questions about oral health self-perception and oral pain in adults aged 30 years and above. The final sample size consisted of 4,205 adults.
2.2. Multidimensional Measures of Self-Reported Oral Health
We used six self-reported oral health measures: overall oral health self-perception; oral pain; impact on work/school; suspected periodontal disease; tooth appearance; and tooth mobility. The key oral health self-perception question was as follows: Overall, how would (you/survey participant [SP]) rate the health of (your/his/her) teeth and gums?” The possible responses were “Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, and Poor.”  The responses to these questions were dichotomized to Excellent/Very Good/Good and Fair/Poor.
The question about oral pain was as follows: “How often during the last year (have you/ has SP) had painful aching anywhere in (your/his/her) mouth?” The impact on work/school question was as follows: “How often during the last year (have you/has SP) had difficulty doing (your/his/her) usual jobs or attending school because of problems with (your/his/her) teeth, mouth or dentures? The possible responses were “Very Often, Fairly Often, Occasionally, Hardly Ever, or Never.”  The responses for these questions were dichotomized to (1) Very often/Fairly often; and (2) Occasionally and Hardly Ever/Never.Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
The periodontal question was as follows: “People with gum disease might have swollen gums, receding gums, sore or infected gums or loose teeth” followed by asking “(Do you/Does SP) think (you/s/he) might have gum disease?” The tooth appearance question was as follows: “During the past three months, (have you/has SP) noticed a tooth that doesn’t look right?”  And the tooth mobility question was the mobile tooth question: the possible responses to these questions were yes or no.
The “How often during, suspected periodontal disease, appearance of a tooth or teeth not looking right during the previous three months, and a loose tooth/teeth not due to injury” were also used .
2.3. Concordance/Discordance between Self-Reports and Recommended Oral Health Care
We grouped adults into two groups: (1) the concordant group (self-reported responses which were in agreement with the clinical evaluation of oral healthcare need such that a self-report of concern/need and clinical evaluation of immediate need agreed or a self-report of no concerns/needs and clinical evaluation of routine care agreed); and (2) the discordant group (self-reported responses and clinical evaluation of oral healthcare need were not in agreement).
The primary outcome was the concordance of the overall oral health self-perception question with the clinical evaluation of oral healthcare need. We determined the percentage of agreement between the self-perception of fair or poor care and the clinical evaluation of oral healthcare need.
We were also interested in the specificity of the overall health self-perception question versus clinical evaluation of oral healthcare need. We determined the percentage of agreement between the self-perception of excellent/very good/good and the clinical evaluation of routine care.Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
2.5. Statistical Analyses
Due to the complex nature of NHANES, SAS® version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) was used with the supplied weights in the data set. The analyses also accounted for stratification, primary sampling unit values, and eligibility. We used chi-square tests to assess the statistical significance of unadjusted associations. We also performed logistic regressions on concordance between clinical evaluation of recommended care and self-reported oral health measures after controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age, education, federal poverty level, insurance coverage, obesity, alcohol use, smoking status, physical activity, presence of chronic conditions (cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes), general health status, and dental visits.
The level of statistical significance for alpha was set at 0.05. Strength of concordance was set at 0-20% as poor; 21-20% as slight; 41-60% as moderate, 61-80% as substantial; and 81-100% as almost perfect, based upon similar guidelines for the Kappa coefficient by Landis and Koch .Women’s Health Oral Presentation Paper
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